In Stuart Bennett’s estimate143 there is more work in the area of applied theatre than there is in the mainstream: if that is true, then if we regard the social aspects of theatre as an economic activity it becomes important to emphasise this aspect to young people in training; and as part of widening participation, to encourage underrepresented groups such as working class and ethnic minority young people to see a future in this area. The measures of value we have observed in Chapter Two seem to hold up as valid: aesthetics, social value, and economic viability. Any project can be subjected to this analysis, though it is probably important that we do not expect every show to conform strictly to a full measure in each area, particularly in a development phase. I am conscious, in having completed this extended essay, that although analysis has been present, that it has not been at the fore of the exercise, as one might expect from a Masters’ assignment. My concerns as a practitioner, both of theatre and education, are more to provide a series of starting points, and something of a taxonomy. There are areas I would wish to expand and develop. Theatre in prisons is not well represented here, even within the range of activity under inspection. The whole area of commercial working class entertainment, as mentioned above, should be brought into the survey. The connection of pantomime, clowning, music hall and variety as a living tradition, with strong roots in working class culture, should be seen as part of this exercise; as should the other uses of theatre technologies. The issue, at the end of this survey, is what it demonstrates. Firstly, despite a reputation that is often poor, Arts Council England does seem to be having some effect as a change manager. The methodology is often poor; and gives the impression of disengagement and patrician aloofness; but clearly there are people there who are doing great work. Secondly, there is a broad and extensive movement of practitioners who are passionate and dedicated to their work. Not outlined within the survey, but anecdotal evidence suggests many ‘mainstream’ artists have either moved into social theatre, or manage a mixed practice.

143 Conversation with the author, July 2008

The third area is one which I think comes from the breadth of the survey, showing parallel trend in a number of areas: the reflection of a changing society; one of less deference, where hierarchy is giving way to networking; engagement rather than imposition; and a blurring of the distinction between professional, volunteer and amateur. This has implications for all those who organise, and I would argue for those who create, the social theatre of today. Clay Shirky indicates, as quoted in Chapter 6, the distinction between consumer and producer is now blurred in cyberspace; by analogy, the distiction in the physical world can now be drawn between performances which, once directed, are now being increasingly curated; content may be as much in the hands of the (former) spectator, as of the act-or. Structure is as important as the 56

content, and we might echo McLuhan in arguing for live oerformance as much as mediated, that the medium IS the message. 57



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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ghe1XrWzZP8 To Be Straight with You – DV8 Physical Theatre 11 June 2009

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qW0qW39Ozzs Robert Lepage, Le projet Andersen 13 April 2008

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vxqGkLQyDiM Nabaztag opera 23 November 2006

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http://www.partnership.mmu.ac.uk/dha/ The Dorothy Heathcote archive at Manchester Metropolitan University:

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Adams-Spink, Geoff: Dirty talk for blind people BBC News website http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/8144793.stm Page last updated at 09:41 GMT, Thursday, 16 July 2009 10:41 UK

Baldwin Chris “Participatory Arts and the Agile Citizen” on “Sidcup Papers” http://theatrefutures.org.uk/sidcup-papers/participatory-arts-and-the-agile-citizen posted January 13th, 2008 60

Bennett, Stuart: Drama and Theatre in the UK educational system. In “National Drama”

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http://www.computerandvideogames.com/article.php?id=206634 Monday 26-Jan-2009

Field Andy: Feminist theatre is a scarce commodity Guardian Theatre Blog Posted June 4 2008 Florida, Richard: http://creativeclass.com/richard_florida/books/the_rise_of_the_creative_class/ Gardner Nicky and Kries Susanne: “Thinking about festivals” in

Hidden Europe 14 (May 2007) http://www.hiddeneurope.co.uk/festivals.php Displayed online: Monday 16 April, 2007

Gardner Lyn blog The Guardian May 21 2007 www.guardian.co.uk/stage/theatreblog/2007/may/21/festivalfatigue

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Kolawole Helen: Look who’s taking the stage http://www.guardian.co.uk/stage/2003/jul/26/whoswhoinbritishtheatre.featureThe Guardian, Saturday 26 July 2003

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Panos David Creative Clusters & Creative London http://thelondonparticular.org/items/creativeclusters.html Summer 2004

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http://www.thestage.co.uk/news/newsstory.php/25814/exclusive-westminster-theatre-delayed-until 8 October 2009 61

7.3 BOOKS 

Bakhtin, Mikhail; Rabelais and his World. Written c1940, but published 1965; current edition trans. Iswolsky, Helen. Indiana University Press 1984 Bennett, Stuart: Theatre for Children and Young People in the UK: 50 Years of Professional Theatre in the UK Aurora, 2005 Berry, Kathleen S: Dramatic Arts and Cultural Studies: Acting Against the Grain Routledge London 2000 Davies, Andrew: Other Theatres: the Development of Alternative and Experimental Theatre in Britain. Macmillan , Basingstoke, 1987 pp 60-65 De Certeau, M. The Practice of Everyday Life. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1998. Coult T Kershaw B Engineers of the Imagination, A welfare state handbook Croft Susan ‘Black Women Playwrights in Britain’ in Griffiths, T & Llewellyn-Jones M (ed): British and Irish Women Dramatists since 1958 London: Open University Press, 1993 Florida, R.:The Rise of the Creative Class: And How it’s transforming work, leisure, community and everyday life. New York: Perseus Book Group 2002 Fox, John Eyes on Stalks Gardner, Michael: Critiques of Everyday Life Routledge London and NY 2000 Guthrie, Tyrone: Theatre Prospect, Wishart & Co, London, 1932 Huizinga, J. (1955). Homo ludens; a study of the play-element in culture. Boston, Beacon Press. Jackson Tony Learning Through Theatre: New Perspectives on Theatre in Education Routledge 1993 Kershaw, Baz: The Politics of Performance: Radical Theatre as Cultural Intervention Routledge 1992 Kuppers, Petra Community Performance: An Introduction Routledge 2007 Landry Charles, Matarasso François: The art of regeneration: urban renewal through cultural activity. Joseph Rowntree Foundation 1996 Pick, John (ed) The state and the arts John Offord Publications Ltd, Eastbourne, 1980 Raymond, Eric S: The Cathedral and the Bazaar, Musings on Linux and Open Source By an Accidental Revolutionary O’Reilly, New York 1999 Read, Alan: Theatre and Everyday Life. Routledge 1995 Reddington Christine edited by Six TIE Programmes (Methuen) 1987 Robinson, K: Out of Our Minds: Learning to be Creative Capstone 5 April 2001 Robinson Sir Ken (Chair) “All our futures” report, NACCCE 1999 Runnymede Trust Report: Who cares about the white working class? Runnymede Trust, 2008: Department for Communities and Local Government Sources of resentment, and perceptions of ethnic minorities among poor white people in England Department for Communities and Local Government, 7 January 2009 Schechner, R The future of ritual: writings on culture and performance Routledge 1993 Schechner R Performance Theory Routledge 1988 Sennett, R: The Fall of Public Man. Penguin, 2003 Shirky, Clay: Here Comes Everybody Penguin, New York & London, 2008 62

Sobshack, T. (1996) ‘Bakhtin’s “Carnivalesque” in 1950s British Comedy’ in Journal of Popular Film and Television 23(4) Tompsett Ruth ed Black Theatre in Britain London: Harwood Academic, 1998 Tufte, Edward R.: The Cognitive Style of PowerPoint. Pitching out corrupts within. GraPhics press, 2006


Keaney, Emily: The arts debate: Arts community and stakeholder findings. ACE August 2007 Bunting, Catherine: The arts debate: Stage one findings and next Steps. ACE Feb 2007 Mackintosh Genista, “The Stage” Wednesday 30 July 2008 Jowell Tessa: Government and the Value of Culture DCMS May 2004 Edgar David, Saturday May 22, 2004 The Guardian McMaster B: Supporting Excellence in the Arts. DCMS, Jan 2008 p10 ACE: Strategy and report on street Arts April 2002 Wooster, Roger: Emotional involvement or critical detachment? Heathcote’s links with the ideas of Stanislavski, Brecht and Boal ‘Drama magazine ‘ Summer 2004 Arts Council England: Paving the Way Jan 2007 Jenner, Caryl: Advice booklet for actors new to working with Unicorn, about 1970


Larger Than Life: the pleasures and perils of large-scale producing. Monday 29 October 2007, Smithfield, London EC1 www.artichoke.uk.com Street Arts Meeting Brighton, May 2007